A father (or dad) is defined as a male parent or Individual progenitor of human offspring. The adjective "paternal" refers to a father and comparatively to "maternal" for a mother. The verb "to father" means to procreate or to sire a child from which also derives the gerund "fathering". Fathers determine the gender of their child through a sperm cell which either contains an X chromosome (female), or Y chromosome (male). Related terms of endearment are dad, daddy, pa, pop or pops.
From Middle English fader, from Old English fæder, from Proto-Germanic *fadēr (cf. East Frisian foar, Dutch vader, German vater), from Proto-Indo-European *ph₂tḗr (cf. Irish athair, Tocharian A pācar, B pācer, Lithuanian patinas ("male animal")), akin to Latin pater, akin to Ancient Greek πατήρ (patēr), akin to Sanskrit पितृ (pitṛ).